Our solution is used in industrial applications that have traditionally been difficult to implement abatement technology. By providing an integrated solution, K2-CO₂ works with common problems in these industries for decarbonization such as varying flue gas streams from different points in the process and impurities in the flue gas.
Glass manufacturing utilizes furnaces at temperatures up to 1,500 °C to melt raw batch ingredients such as limestone, sand, and soda ash along with cullet to form glass. This produces a flue gas stream typically containing NOX, SO₂, Particulate Matter (PM), and CO₂. Additional pollutants include HF and HCl. Globally, the glass industry produces 86 million metric tons of CO₂ on an annual basis.
Cement manufacturing utilizes fossil-fuel fired kilns at temperatures up to 1450 °C to form an intermediate product called clinker. Within this process, CO₂ is driven from calcium carbonate to form lime, presenting an opportunity for carbon capture. The clinker produced from this process is then mixed with gypsum to form cement. With these processes, the Cement Industry accounts for 8% of global carbon emissions.
Steel is produced by transforming raw materials such as iron ore and coal combined with scrap steel. It is primarily produced using a Blast Furnace or Electric Arc Furnace. Impurities are removed from the iron throughout the process at high temperatures, which results in the need for emission abatement. According to the World Steel Association, steel manufacturing generated more than 3 billion metric tons of CO₂, making the steel sector one of the largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters on the planet.
Biomass and Waste Incinerators
Waste to Energy operations take traditional waste streams such as trash, human biosolids, or biomass to generate electricity from the combustion of non-traditional fuel sources. As a relatively new technology compared to coal or natural gas, emissions from biomass and waste incinerators are rising. While being a source of renewable energy, biomass incineration produced 19 million metric tons of CO2 emissions in 2020 with expectations to rise as more facilities are commissioned.